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To determine if a software program properly handles a wide range of invalid input, a form of automated testing can be used to randomly generate invalid input in an attempt to crash the program.
What term is commonly used when referring to this type of testing?
Fuzz testing or fuzzing is a software testing technique, often automated or semi-automated, that involves providing invalid, unexpected, or random data to the inputs of a computer program. The program is then monitored for exceptions such as crashes, or failing built-in code assertions or for finding potential memory leaks. Fuzzing is commonly used to test for security problems in software or computer systems. It is a form of random testing which has been used for testing hardware or software.
To maintain compliance with regulatory requirements, a security audit of the systems on a network must be performed to determine their compliance with security policies. Which one of the following tools would most likely be used in such an audit?
A. Vulnerability scanner
B. Protocol analyzer
C. Port scanner
D. Intrusion Detection System
A vulnerability scanner is a computer program designed to assess computers, computer systems, networks or applications for weaknesses.
They can be run either as part of vulnerability management by those tasked with protecting systems – or by black hat attackers looking to gain unauthorized access.
Which of these options is the most secure procedure for storing backup tapes?
A. In a climate controlled facility offsite
B. On a different floor in the same building
C. Inside the data center for faster retrieval in a fireproof safe
D. In a cool dry environment
An effective disaster data recovery strategy should consist of producing backup tapes and housing them in an offsite storage facility. This way the data isn’t compromised if a natural disaster affects the business’ office. It is highly recommended that the backup tapes be handled properly and stored in a secure, climate controlled facility. This provides peace of mind, and gives the business almost immediate stability after a disaster.
What term describes the amount of risk that remains after the vulnerabilities are classified and the countermeasures have been deployed?
A. Residual risk
B. Inherent risk
C. Deferred risk
D. Impact risk
The residual risk is the risk or danger of an action or an event, a method or a (technical) process that, although being abreast with science, still conceives these dangers, even if all theoretically possible safety measures would be applied (scientifically conceivable measures); in other words, the amount of risk left over after natural or inherent risks have been reduced by risk controls.
Session splicing is an IDS evasion technique in which an attacker delivers data in multiple, smallsized packets to the target computer, making it very difficult for an IDS to detect the attack signatures.
Which tool can be used to perform session splicing attacks?
One basic technique is to split the attack payload into multiple small packets, so that the IDS must reassemble the packet stream to detect the attack. A simple way of splitting packets is by fragmenting them, but an adversary can also simply craft packets with small payloads. The ‘whisker’ evasion tool calls crafting packets with small payloads ‘session splicing’.
Which of the following tools can be used for passive OS fingerprinting?
The passive operating system fingerprinting is a feature built into both the pf and tcpdump tools.
You are the Systems Administrator for a large corporate organization. You need to monitor all network traffic on your local network for suspicious activities and receive notifications when an attack is occurring.
Which tool would allow you to accomplish this goal?
A. Network-based IDS
D. Host-based IDS
A network-based intrusion detection system (NIDS) is used to monitor and analyze network traffic to protect a system from network-based threats.
A NIDS reads all inbound packets and searches for any suspicious patterns. When threats are discovered, based on its severity, the system can take action such as notifying administrators, or barring the source IP address from accessing the network.
What does a firewall check to prevent particular ports and applications from getting packets into an organization?
A. Transport layer port numbers and application layer headers
B. Presentation layer headers and the session layer port numbers
C. Network layer headers and the session layer port numbers
D. Application layer port numbers and the transport layer headers
Newer firewalls can filter traffic based on many packet attributes like source IP address, source port, destination IP address or transport layer port, destination service like WWW or FTP. They can filter based on protocols, TTL values, netblock of originator, of the source, and many other attributes.
Application layer firewalls are responsible for filtering at 3, 4, 5, 7 layer. Because they analyze the application layer headers, most firewall control and filtering is performed actually in the software.
You work as a Security Analyst for a retail organization. In securing the company’s network, you set up a firewall and an IDS. However, hackers are able to attack the network. After investigating, you discover that your IDS is not configured properly and therefore is unable to trigger alarms when needed. What type of alert is the IDS giving?
A. False Negative
B. False Positive
C. True Negative
D. True Positive
A false negative error, or in short false negative, is where a test result indicates that a condition failed, while it actually was successful. I.e. erroneously no effect has been assumed.
Which of the following types of firewalls ensures that the packets are part of the established session?
A. Stateful inspection firewall
B. Circuit-level firewall
C. Application-level firewall
D. Switch-level firewall
A stateful firewall is a network firewall that tracks the operating state and characteristics of network connections traversing it. The firewall is configured to distinguish legitimate packets for different types of connections. Only packets matching a known active connection (session) are allowed to pass the firewall.
Which of the following incident handling process phases is responsible for defining rules, collaborating human workforce, creating a back-up plan, and testing the plans for an organization?
A. Preparation phase
B. Containment phase
C. Identification phase
D. Recovery phase
There are several key elements to have implemented in preparation phase in order to help mitigate any potential problems that may hinder one’s ability to handle an incident.
For the sake of brevity, the following should be performed:
Policy – a policy provides a written set of principles, rules, or practices within an Organization.
Response Plan/Strategy – after establishing organizational policies, now it is time to create a plan/strategy to handle incidents. This would include the creation of a backup plan.
Communication – having a communication plan is necessary, due to the fact that it may be necessary to contact specific individuals during an incident.
Documentation – it is extremely beneficial to stress that this element is particularly necessary and can be a substantial life saver when it comes to incident response.
Ricardo wants to send secret messages to a competitor company.
To secure these messages, he uses a technique of hiding a secret message within an ordinary message.
The technique provides ‘security through obscurity’.
What technique is Ricardo using?
B. Public-key cryptography
C. RSA algorithm
Steganography is the practice of concealing a file, message, image, or video within another file, message, image, or video.
During a security audit of IT processes, an IS auditor found that there were no documented security procedures. What should the IS auditor do?
A. Identify and evaluate existing practices
B. Create a procedures document
C. Conduct compliance testing
D. Terminate the audit
The auditor should first evaluated existing policies and practices to identify problem areas and opportunities.
Which of the following statements regarding ethical hacking is incorrect?
A. Ethical hackers should never use tools or methods that have the potential of exploiting vulnerabilities in an organization’s systems.
B. Testing should be remotely performed offsite.
C. An organization should use ethical hackers who do not sell vendor hardware/software or other consulting services.
D. Ethical hacking should not involve writing to or modifying the target systems.
Ethical hackers use the same methods and techniques, including those that have the potential of exploiting vulnerabilities, to test and bypass a system’s defenses as their less-principled counterparts, but rather than taking advantage of any vulnerabilities found, they document them and provide actionable advice on how to fix them so the organization can improve its overall security.
Craig received a report of all the computers on the network that showed all the missing patches and weak passwords. What type of software generated this report?
A. a port scanner
B. a vulnerability scanner
C. a virus scanner
D. a malware scanner
What two conditions must a digital signature meet?
A. Has to be unforgeable, and has to be authentic.
B. Has to be legible and neat.
C. Must be unique and have special characters.
D. Has to be the same number of characters as a physical signature and must be unique.
An attacker is trying to redirect the traffic of a small office. That office is using their own mail server, DNS server and NTP server because of the importance of their job. The attacker gains access to the DNS server and redirects the direction www.google.com to his own IP address. Now when the employees of the office want to go to Google they are being redirected to the attacker machine. What is the name of this kind of attack?
A. ARP Poisoning
B. Smurf Attack
C. DNS spoofing
D. MAC Flooding
If executives are found liable for not properly protecting their company’s assets and information systems, what type of law would apply in this situation?
What is the role of test automation in security testing?
A. It can accelerate benchmark tests and repeat them with a consistent test setup. But it cannot replace manual testing completely.
B. It is an option but it tends to be very expensive.
C. It should be used exclusively. Manual testing is outdated because of low speed and possible test setup inconsistencies.
D. Test automation is not usable in security due to the complexity of the tests.
The company ABC recently discovered that their new product was released by the opposition before their premiere. They contract an investigator who discovered that the maid threw away papers with confidential information about the new product and the opposition found it in the garbage. What is the name of the technique used by the opposition?
A. Hack attack
C. Dumpster diving
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