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Following questions and answers are all new published by Cisco Official Exam Center: http://www.lead2pass.com/200-105.html

Which two statements about using the CHAP authentication mechanism in a PPP link are true? (Choose two.)

A.    CHAP uses a two-way handshake.
B.    CHAP uses a three-way handshake.
C.    CHAP authentication periodically occurs after link establishment.
D.    CHAP authentication passwords are sent in plaintext.
E.    CHAP authentication is performed only upon link establishment.
F.    CHAP has no protection from playback attacks.

Answer: BC
Understanding and Configuring PPP CHAP Authentication http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk713/tk507/technologies_tech_note09186a00800b4131.shtml
One-Way and Two-Way Authentication
CHAP is defined as a one-way authentication method. However, you use CHAP in both directions to create a two-way authentication. Hence, with two-way CHAP, a separate three-way handshake is initiated by each side. In the Cisco CHAP implementation, by default, the called party must authenticate the calling party (unless authentication is completely turned off). Therefore, a one-way authentication initiated by the called party is the minimum possible authentication. However, the calling party can also verify the identity of the called party, and this results in a two-way authentication. One-way authentication is often required when you connect to non-Cisco devices.

Which command allows you to verify the encapsulation type (CISCO or IETF) for a Frame Relay link?

A.    show frame-relay lmi
B.    show frame-relay map
C.    show frame-relay pvc
D.    show interfaces serial

Answer: B
map will show frame relay encapsulation (cisco or ietf) http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios/12_2/wan/command/reference/wrffr4.html#wp1029343
show frame-relay map” will show frame relay encapsulation type (CISCO or IETF)


What is the purpose of Inverse ARP?

A.    to map a known IP address to a MAC address
B.    to map a known DLCI to a MAC address
C.    to map a known MAC address to an IP address
D.    to map a known DLCI to an IP address
E.    to map a known IP address to a SPID
F.    to map a known SPID to a MAC address

Answer: D
Frame-Relay (a Layer 2 protocol) uses Inverse-Arp to map a know Layer 2 Address (DLCI) to a unknow Layer 3 Address.
Dynamic Mapping
Dynamic address mapping relies on the Frame Relay Inverse Address Resolution Protocol (Inverse ARP), defined by RFC 1293, to resolve a next hop network protocol address to a local DLCI value. The Frame Relay router sends out Inverse ARP requests on its Frame Relay PVC to discover the protocol address of the remote device connected to the Frame Relay network. The responses to the Inverse ARP requests are used to populate an address-to-DLCI mapping table on the Frame Relay router or access server. The router builds and maintains this address-to-DLCImapping table, which contains all resolved Inverse ARP requests, including both dynamic and static mapping entries.
When data needs to be transmitted to a remote destination address, the router performs a lookup on its routing table to determine whether a route to that destination address exists and the next hop address or directly connected interface to use in order to reach that destination. Subsequently, the router consults its address-to-DLCI mapping table for the local DLCI that corresponds to the next hop address. Finally, the router places the frames targeted to the remote destination on its identified outgoing local DLCI.
On Cisco routers, dynamic Inverse ARP is enabled by default for all network layer protocols enabled on the physical interface. Packets are not sent out for network layer protocols that are not enabled on the physical interface. For example, no dynamic Inverse ARP resolution is performed for IPX if ipx routing is not enabled globally and there is no active IPX address assigned to the interface. Because dynamic Inverse ARP is enabled by default, no additional Cisco IOS command is required to enable it on an interface.
Example 4-16 shows the output of the show frame-relay map privileged EXEC mode command. The addressto-DLCI mapping table displays useful information. The output of the command shows that the next hop address is dynamically mapped to the local DLCI 102, broadcast is enabled on the interface, and the interface’s status is currently active.
After enabling Frame Relay on the interface, the Cisco router does not perform Inverse ARP until IP routing is enabled on the router. By default, IP routing is enabled on a Cisco router. If IP routing has been turned off, enable IP routing with the ip routing command in the global configuration mode. After IP routing is enabled, the router performs Inverse ARP and begins populating the address-to-DLCI mapping table with resolved entries.

Refer to the exhibit. A network associate has configured OSPF with the command:

City(config-router)# network area 0

After completing the configuration, the associate discovers that not all the interfaces are participating in OSPF. Which three of the interfaces shown in the exhibit will participate in OSPF according to this configuration statement? (Choose three.)


A.    FastEthernet0 /0
B.    FastEthernet0 /1
C.    Serial0/0
D.    Serial0/1.102
E.    Serial0/1.103
F.    Serial0/1.104

Answer: BCD
The “network equals to network This network has: Increment: 64 (/26= 1111 1111.1111 1111.1111 1111.1100 0000)Network address:
Broadcast address: all interface in the range of this network will join OSPF – B C D are correct.

Refer to the exhibit. The Lakeside Company has the internetwork in the exhibit. The administrator would like to reduce the size of the routing table on the Central router.
Which partial routing table entry in the Central router represents a route summary that represents the LANs in Phoenix but no additional subnets?


A. is subnetted, 1 subnets
D [90/20514560] via, 6w0d, Serial0/1
B. is subnetted, 1 subnets
D [90/20514560] via, 6w0d, Serial0/1
C. is subnetted, 1 subnets
D [90/20514560] via, 6w0d, Serial0/1
D. is subnetted, 1 subnets
D [90/20514560] via, 6w0d, Serial0/1
E. is subnetted, 1 subnets
D [90/20514560] via, 6w0d, Serial0/1
F. is subnetted, 1 subnets
D [90/20514560] via, 6w0d, Serial0/1

Answer: D
All the above networks can be summarized to network but the question requires to “represent the LANs in Phoenix but no additional subnets” so we must summarized to network. The Phoenix router has 4 subnets so we need to “move left” 2 bits of “/24-> /22 is the best choice – D is correct.

What information does a router running a link-state protocol use to build and maintain its topological database? (Choose two.)

A.    hello packets
B.    SAP messages sent by other routers
C.    LSAs from other routers
D.    beacons received on point-to-point links
E.    routing tables received from other link-state routers
F.    TTL packets from designated routers

Answer: AC

Which commands are required to properly configure a router to run OSPF and to add network to OSPF area 0? (Choose two.)

A.    Router(config)# router ospf 0
B.    Router(config)# router ospf 1
C.    Router(config)# router ospf area 0
D.    Router(config-router)# network 0
E.    Router(config-router)# network area 0
F.    Router(config-router)# network area 0

Answer: BE
In the router ospf
command, theranges from 1 to 65535 so o is an invalid number – B is correct but A is not correct. To configure OSPF, we need a wildcard in the “network” statement, not a subnet mask. We also need to assgin an area to this process – E is correct.

Which type of EIGRP route entry describes a feasible successor?

A.    a backup route, stored in the routing table
B.    a primary route, stored in the routing table
C.    a backup route, stored in the topology table
D.    a primary route, stored in the topology table

Answer: C
Feasible Successors
A destination entry is moved from the topology table to the routing table when there is a feasible successor. All minimum cost paths to the destination form a set. From this set, the neighbors that have an advertised metric less than the current routing table metric are considered feasible successors.
Feasible successors are viewed by a router as neighbors that are downstream with respect to the destination.
These neighbors and the associated metrics are placed in the forwarding table.
When a neighbor changes the metric it has been advertising or a topology change occurs in the network, the set of feasible successors may have to be re-evaluated. However, this is not categorized as a route recomputation.
Feasible successor is a route whose Advertised Distance (AD) is less than the Feasible Distance (FD) of the current best path. A feasible successor is a backup route, which is not stored in the routing table but, stored in the topology table.

Drag and Drop Question
Drag each description on the left to the appropriate term on the right. Not all the descriptions are used.





Drag and Drop Question
Drag the term on the left to its definition on the right (Not all options are used.)




Poison reverse: A router learns from its neighbor that a route is down and the router sends an update back to the neighbor with an infinite metric to that routeLSA: The packets flooded when a topology change occurs, causing network routers to update their topological databases and recalculate routes
Split horizon: This prevents sending information about a routeback out the same interface that originally learned about the route holddown timer: For a given period, this causes the router to ignore any updates with poorer metrics to a lost network

Drag and Drop Question
Drat the description on the left to the routing protocol on the right. (Not all options are used.)




Drag and Drop Question
Drat the Frame Relay acronym on the left to match its definition on the right. (Not all acronyms are used)




Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is a Cisco proprietary routing protocol, so it is vendor-specific. By default, EIGRP internal routes have an administrative distance value of 90. OSPF uses cost as its metric. By default, the cost of an interface is calculated based on bandwidth with the formula cost= 10000 0000/bandwidth (in bps). OSPF elects a DR on each broadcast and nonbroadcast multiaccess networks (like Ethernet and Frame Relay environments, respectively). It doesn’t elect a DR on point-to-point link (like a serial WAN).

Hotspot Question
OSPF is configured using default classful addressing. With all routers and interfaces operational, how many networks will be in the routing table of R1 that are indicated to be learned by OSPF?



A.    2
B.    3
C.    4
D.    5
E.    6
F.    7

Answer: C
It already knows about its directly connected ones, only those not directly connected are “Learned by OSPF”.
OSPF as a link state routing protocol (deals with LSAs rather than routes) does not auto summarize (doesn’t support “auto-summary”).So learned route by OSPF are followed

Hotspot Question



After the network has converged, what type of messaging, if any, occurs between R3 and R4?

A.    No messages are exchanged.
B.    Hellos are sent every 10 seconds.
C.    The full database from each router is sent every 30 seconds.
D.    The routing table from each router is sent every 60 seconds.

Answer: B
HELLO messages are used to maintain adjacent neighbors so even when the network is converged, hellos are still exchanged. On broadcast and point-to-point links, the default is 10 seconds, on NBMA the default is 30 seconds.

Hotspot Question



To allow or prevent load balancing to network, which of the following commands could be used in R2? (Choose two.)

A.    R2(config-if)#clock rate
B.    R2(config-if)#bandwidth
C.    R2(config-if)#ip ospf cost
D.    R2(config-if)#ip ospf priority
E.    R2(config-router)#distance ospf

Answer: BC
The cost (also called metric) of an interface in OSPF is an indication of the overhead required to send packets across a certain interface. The cost of an interface is inversely proportional to the bandwidth of that interface. A higher bandwidth indicates a lower cost. There is more overhead (higher cost) and time delays involved in crossing a 56k serial line than crossing a 10M ethernet line. The formula used to calculate the cost is:

cost= 10000 0000/bandwith in bps

For example, it will cost 10 EXP8/10 EXP7 = 10 to cross a 10M Ethernet line and will cost 10 EXP8/1544000 =64 to cross a T1 line.
By default, the cost of an interface is calculated based on the bandwidth; you can force the cost of an interface with the ip ospf cost <value> interface subconfiguration mode command.

Hotspot Question



R1 is configured with the default configuration of OSPF.
From the following list of IP addresses configured on R1, which address will the OSPF process select as the router ID?


Answer: A
The Router ID (RID) is an IP address used to identify the router and is chosen using the following sequence:
+ The highest IP address assigned to a loopback (logical) interface.
+ If a loopback interface is not defined, the highest IP address of all active router’s physical interfaces will be chosen.
+ The router ID can be manually assigned
In this case, because a loopback interface is not configured so the highest active IP address is chosen as the router ID.

Hotspot Question




If required, what password should be configured on the DeepSouth router in the branch office to allow a connection to be established with the MidEast router?

A.    No password is required.
B.    Enable
C.    Secret
D.    Telnet
E.    Console

Answer: B

In the diagram, DeepSouth is connected to Dubai’s S1/2 interface and is configured as follows:
Interface Serial1/2
IP address
Encapsulalation PPP ; Encapsulation for this interface is PPP
Check out the following Cisco Link:
Here is a snipit of an example:
Network Diagram
If Router 1 initiates a call to Router 2, Router 2 would challenge Router 1, but Router 1 would not challenge Router 2. This occurs because the ppp authentication chap callin command is configured on Router 1. This is an example of a unidirectional authentication. In this setup, the ppp chap hostname alias-r1 command is configured on Router 1. Router 1 uses “alias-r1” as its hostname for CHAP authentication instead of “r1.” The Router 2 dialer map name should match Router 1’s ppp chap hostname; otherwise, two B channels are established, one for each direction.


Hotspot Question




What would be the destination Layer 2 address in the frame header for a frame that is being forwarded by Dubai to the host address of

A.    825
B.    230
C.    694
D.    387

Answer: C
According to command output is using the 694 dlci value. http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios/12_2/wan/command/reference/wrffr4.html#wp1029343

Hotspot Question




Which connection uses the default encapsulation for serial interfaces on Cisco routers?

A.    The serial connection to the NorthCoast branch office.
B.    The serial connection to the North branch office.
C.    The serial connection to the Southlands branch office.
D.    The serial connection to the Multinational Core.

Answer: B
Cisco default encapsulation is HDLC which is by default enabled on all cisco router. If we want to enable other encapsulation protocol(PPP,X.25 etc) we need to define in interface setting. But here except s1/1 all interface defined by other encapsulation protocol so we will assume default encapsulation running on s1/1 interface and s1/1 interface connected with North

Hotspot Question
A static map to the S-AMER location is required.
Which command should be used to create this map?




A.    frame-relay map ip 825 broadcast
B.    frame-relay map ip 230 broadcast
C.    frame-relay map ip 694 broadcast
D.    frame-relay map ip 387 broadcast

Answer: B
frame-relay map ip 230 broadcast is S-AMER router ip address and its configure on 230 dlci value. Check “show frame-relay map ” output in the diagram.

Lab – VTP Configuration
A new switch is being added to the River Campus LAN. You will work to complete this process by first configuring the building_210 switch with an IP address and default gateway. For the switch host address, you should use the last available IP address on the management subnet. In addition, the switch needs to be configured to be in the same VTP domain as the building_100 switch and also needs to be configured as a VTP client. Assume that the IP configuration and VTP configuration on building_100 are complete and correct.
The configuration of the router is not accessible for this exercise. You must accomplish the following tasks:

Determine and configure the IP host address of the new switch.
Determine and configure the default gateway of the new switch.
Determine and configure the correct VTP domain name for the new switch.
Configure the new switch as a VTP client.


Here are the Steps for this Lab Solution:
The question states we can’t access the router so we can only get required information from switch building_1. Click on the PC connected with switch building_1 (through a console line) to access switch building_1s CLI. On this switch use the show running-config command:

building_1#show running-config

Next use the show vtp status command to learn about the vtp domain on this switch

building_1#show vtp status

(Notice: the IP address, IP default-gateway and VTP domain name might be different!!!) You should write down these 3 parameters carefully.

Configuring the new switch
+ Determine and configure the IP host address of the new switch The question requires “for the switch host address, you should use the last available IP address on the management subnet”. The building_1 switch’s IP address, which is, belongs to the management subnet.
Increment: 32 (because 224 = 1110 0000)
Network address:
Broadcast address:

->The last available IP address on the management subnet is and it hasn’t been used (notice that the IP address of Fa0/1 interface of the router is also the default gateway address
Also notice that the management IP address of a switch should be configured in Vlan1 interface. After it is configured, we can connect to it via telnet or SSH to manage it.

Switch2#configure terminal
Switch2(config)#interface Vlan1
Switch2(config-if)#ip address
Switch2(config-if)#no shutdown

+ Determine and configure the default gateway of the new switch The default gateway of this new switch is same as that of building_1 switch, which is

Switch2(config)#ip default-gateway

+ Determine and configure the correct VTP domain name for the new switch The VTP domain name shown on building_1 switch is Cisco so we have to use it in the new switch (notice: the VTP domain name will be different in the exam and it is case sensitive so be careful) Switch2(config)# vtp domain Cisco

+ Configure the new switch as a VTP client
Switch2(config)#vtp mode client

We should check the new configuration with the “show running-config” & “show vtp status”; also try pinging from the new switch to the the default gateway to make sure it works well.

Finally save the configuration
Switch2#copy running-config startup-config

Lab – NAT
A network associate is configuring a router for the weaver company to provide internet access. The ISP has provided the company six public IP addresses of The company has 14 hosts that need to access the internet simultaneously.
The hosts in the company LAN have been assigned private space addresses in the range of –
The following have already been configured on the router



The above named organisation has 14 hosts that need to access the internet simultaneously but were provided with just 6 public IP addresses from198.18.184.105 to
In this case, you have to consider using NAT Overload (or PAT)
Doubleclick on the Weaver router to access the CLI
Router> enable
Router# configure terminal
First you should change the router’s name to Weaver:
Router(config)#hostname Weaver
Create a NAT pool of global addresses to be allocated with their netmask:
Weaver(config)# ip nat pool mypool netmask
Create a standard access control list that permits the addresses that are to be translated:
Weaver(config)#access-list 1 permit
Establish dynamic source translation, specifying the access list that was defined in the prior step:
Weaver(config)#ip nat inside source list 1 pool mypool overload
Finally, we should save all your work with the following command:
Weaver#copy running-config startup-config (Don’t forget this)
Check your configuration by going to “Host for testing” and type:
C : \ >ping
The ping should work well and you will be replied from
This command translates all source addresses that pass access list 1, which means a source address from to, into an address from the pool named mypool (the pool contains addresses from to Overload keyword allowsto map multiple IP addresses to a single registered IP address (many-to- one) by using different ports.
The question said that appropriate interfaces have been configured for NAT inside and NAT outside statements.
This is how to configure the NAT inside and NAT outside, just for your understanding:

Weaver(config)#interface fa0/0
Weaver(config-if)#ip nat inside
Weaver(config)#interface s0/0
Weaver(config-if)#ip nat outside

Lab – OSPF


The question mentioned Boston router was not configured correctly or incomplete so we should check this router first. Click on PC-B to access the command line interface (CLI) of Boston router.
Boston>enable (type cisco as its password here)
Boston#show running-config
First, remember that the current OSPF Process ID is 2 because we will need it for later configuration. Next notice that in the second “network” command the network and wildcard mask are and which is equivalent to in term of subnet mask. Therefore this subnetwork’s range is from to but the ip address of s0/0 interface of Boston router is192.168.155.5 which don’t belong to this range -> this is the reason why OSPF did not recognize s0 interface of Boston router as a part of area 0. So we need to find a subnetwork that s0 interface belongs to.
IP address of S0 interface:
Subnet mask: /30 = 1111 1111.1111 1111.1111 1111.1111 1100
Increment: 4
Network address (which IP address of s0 interface belongs to): (because 4 * 1 = 4 < 5)
Therefore we must use this network instead of network
Boston#configure terminal
Boston(config)#router ospf 2
Boston(config-router)#no network area 0
Boston(config-router)#network area 0
Boston#copy running-config startup-config
Finally, you should issue a ping command from Boston router to Lancaster router to make sure it works well.

Lab – Access List Simulation
Corp1#configure terminal
Corp1(config)#interface s1/0
Corp1(config-if)#ip add
Corp1#show running-config
Corp1#configure terminal
Corp1(config)#access-list 100 permit tcp host host eq 80
Corp1(config)#access-list 100 deny tcp any host eq 80
Corp1(config)#access-list 100 permit ip any any
Corp1(config)#interface fa0/1
Corp1(config-if)#ip access-group 100 out
Corp1#copy running-config startup-config

Explanation :
Select the console on Corp1 router

Configuring ACL
Corp1#configure terminal

Comment: To permit only Host C (192. 168. 33. 3){source addr} to access finance server address (172. 22.242. 23){destination addr} on port number 80 (web)
Corp1(config)# access-list 100 permit tcp host host eq 80

Comment: To deny any source to access finance server address (172. 22. 242. 23) {destination addr} on port number 80 (web)
Corp1(config)# access-list 100 deny tcp any host eq 80

Comment: To permit ip protocol from any source to access any destination because of the implicit deny any any statement at the end of ACL.
Corp1(config)# access-list 100 permit ip any any

Applying the ACL on the Interface
Comment: Check show ip interface brief command to identify the interface type and number by checking the IP address configured.
Corp1(config)#interface fa 0/1
If the ip address configured already is incorrect as well as the subnet mask. this should be corrected in order ACL to work type this commands at interface mode :
no ip address 192. x. x. x 255. x. x. x (removes incorrect configured ip address and subnet mask) Configure Correct IP Address and subnet mask :
ip address 172. 22. 242. 30 255. 255. 255. 240 ( range of address specified going to server is given as 172. 22. 242. 17 172. 22. 242. 30 )

Comment: Place the ACL to check for packets going outside the interface towards the finance web server.
Corp1(config-if)#ip access-group 100 out

Important: To save your running config to startup before exit.
Corp1#copy running-config startup-config

Verifying the Configuration :
Step1: Show ip interface brief command identifies the interface on which to apply access list .
Step2: Click on each host A,B,C & D . Host opens a web browser page , Select address box of the web browser and type the ip address of finance web server(172. 22. 242. 23) to test whether it permits /deny access to the finance web Server.

Lab – CLI Configuration




In practical examinations, please note the following, the actual information will prevail.
1. Name of the router is xxx
2. Enable. secret password is xxx
3. Password In access user EXEC mode using the console is xxx
4. The password to allow telnet access to the router is xxx
5. IP information


Router#config terminal
Router(config)#hostname Gotha
Gotha(config)#enable secret mi222ke
Gotha(config)#line console 0
Gotha(config-line)#password G8tors1
Gotha(config)#line vty 0 4
Gotha(config-line)#password dun63lap
Gotha(config)#interface fa0/0
Gotha(config-if)#no shutdown
Gotha(config-if)#ip address
Gotha(config)#interface s0/0/0
Gotha(config-if)#ip address
Gotha(config-if)#no shutdown
Gotha(config)#router rip
Gotha(config-router)#version 2
Gotha#copy run start

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